At the time of its Natufian inhabitance, the area was heavily forested in oak, almond, and pistachio trees. The first two phases had massive stone-built structures with smaller ones in the third phase. These phases occurred from 12, to BCE. The dwellings were cut into the earth, had subterranean floors, and walls that were built of dry stone. Wooden posts supported the roofs, which were probably thatches with brushwood or animal hides.

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Works of Art 9 Essay After the last Ice Age, as the climate became warmer and rainfall more abundant, the nomadic population of the eastern Mediterranean began to establish the first permanent settlements. During this period of scientific exploration, hundreds of sites were uncovered, not just Natufian but also from preceding and succeeding periods.

These archaeological activities contributed enormously to our current understanding of the prehistoric record of this region. The Natufians were the first people of the eastern Mediterranean area to establish permanent villages. Prior to the Natufians, bands of people had moved seasonally, to follow animals for hunting and to gather available plants. The Natufians, while still hunters and foragers, settled in villages year-round, relying on the natural resources of their immediate area.

These resources included gazelle, wild cereals, and marine life. The latter, abundant in the region, was used for food as well as for making tools, art, and body ornamentation. Shells collected from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea were commonly used for jewelry and headdresses, typical status markers. The Natufians are also the first documented Levantine group to have produced artistically decorated utilitarian objects such as pottery and ostrich-egg vessels.

These objects have been found in scores of Natufian sites. Their decoration of geometric motifs almost surely served as a form of visual communication, perhaps to demonstrate ownership of the objects by an individual or to indicate affiliation with a particular group or geographic area. Natufian art, while it follows some of the same representational conventions of the European Paleolithic in its naturalistic and sensitive portrayal of animals, reflects a new awareness of individual identity and social life.

Natufian burials, often placed in close proximity to the homes of the living, contain elaborate jewelry made of bone, shell, and stone. Natufian representations of humans are both schematic and naturalistic. The eyes, formed by three concentric curving lines, dominate the lower portion of the face, which has been bisected by a broad horizontal band across the center of the stone. The eyes are disproportionately large and yet there was no attempt to delineate pupils. The nose and forehead are exceptionally broad.

The upper portion of the head, slightly damaged, is incised with diagonal lines, which may represent hair or ornamentation. The base is flat, indicating that it was probably intended to sit upright. Natufian art, it is believed, was linked to the practice of rituals and ceremonies. In their newly settled hamlets, the Natufians may have used their superbly carved sculptures, animal figurines, and jewelry to represent beliefs commonly held across communities, and to differentiate status among individual community members.

New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Oxford University Press,


Ain Mallaha

The battle, as described by Qalanisi, was bloody and quick, resulting in decisive victory for the Muslim forces, who are reported to have lost only two men, [11] with the king narrowly escaping with a bodyguard. The Itinerary of Richard I notes that the army had advanced to Merla, "where the king had spent one of the previous nights. The structures have been assumed to belong to a sugar-producing installation. Sufi traveller al-Bakri al-Siddiqi passed by the village in the mid-eighteenth century. Robinson observed that Ain el-Mallaha lay northwest of Lake Hula, and was "a single large fountain. The population lived mostly of agriculture.





'Ain Mallaha


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