Fish behavior by day, night and twilight. Os clientes mais frequentes de E. Carlos Eduardo Costa Campos, e-mail: Interactions between cleaning gobies and territorial damselfish on coral reefs. In Latin American Coral reefs J. Cleaning activity of juvenile angelfish, Pomacanthus paruon the reefs of the Abrolhos Archipelago, western South Atlantic.
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Robins, slaty goby J. Robins, yellowprow goby Description[ edit ] Neon gobies are very small, torpedo -shaped fish. Although sizes vary slightly by species, they are generally about 2. The color of the stripes varies by species.
Like all gobies, their dorsal fin is split in two, the anterior dorsal fin being rounded like that of a clownfish and the posterior dorsal fin being relatively flat. The anal fin lines up with the posterior dorsal fin and is of similar shape. The pectoral fins are nearly circular, and, like all other fins, transparent. They have been found along the northern Yucatan Peninsula. The AGSs develop from precursive tissues pAGSs , in the form of bilateral, ventrally localized cell masses, located close to the junction of the ovarian lobes and the oviduct.
At the time of sex change, it undergoes rapid growth and diverts to form the AGSs. However, the ovarian lumen remains even after the sex change, functioning as a common spermatozoa collection region that is continuous with the common genital sinus as free spermatozoa travels from seminiferous lobules into the gonadal lumen.
After spawning, male gobies guard and oxygenate eggs by frequent movement of their pectoral and caudal fins; males consume any eggs affected by fungus. However, after hatching, the larvae receive no parental protection.
Around 30 days after hatching, the larvae begin metamorphosis into juvenile gobies. Males benefit from forming monogamous pairs with large females since they tend to have higher fecundity , while females are able to gain more resources by cleaning under the protection of a larger male. Females experience reduced cleaning rate overall when cleaning with a male. However, they spend more time in each cleaning session, so are able to feed on more ectoparasites compared to those with a smaller mate.
However, several biological and ecological factors also enforce monogamy in these cleaner gobies. Elacatinus species reproduce asynchronously , which makes polygyny unfavorable. Furthermore, although it differs among species, cleaner gobies tend to live in environments of low population density where distance between potential mates is rather far.
Mated males may approach a new female if she is larger than their mate. Polygyny may also be exhibited in widowed males and females. When Elacatinus spp. However, the vacant territory is not claimed by other cleaner gobies, which implies that the widowed gobies actually chose to move instead of being forced. This observation shows that the widowed gobies possibly have moved to search for new mate. They present themselves and wait for clients at cleaning stations , as they largely depend on cleaning for their food.
Occupying the same territory, the cleaner pair usually cleans the same client at the same time. Most frequent clients of Elacatinus include damselfish , Pomacentridae and Haemulidae , and planktivores.
Such poses are usually directed at the cleaning station rather than the individual gobies. In observational studies, decreases in cleaning frequency turned out to be correlated to increases in cleaning durations. Fish response to danger is largely classified into fight-or-flight or freezing.
However, Elacatinus follows neither. It engages in cleaning interactions with potential predators sooner than with nonpredatory clients, treating them almost as soon as they arrive at their cleaning stations. Furthermore, Elacatinus species clean predators for longer durations.
As implied by higher cortisol level in the cleaners when approached by predators, the fish do experience stress upon encountering predators, but unlike other fish that exhibit flight or freezing response, Elacatinus spp. Elacatinus is thought to choose to be proactive, as cleaning predators faster makes them leave sooner, which in turn encourages nonpredatory clients to revisit cleaning stations.
Moreover, such proactive response may serve as a preconflict management strategy that might result in safe outcome for interactions with certain predators.
Four of six cleaner species of the genus Elacatinus display such coloration—E. The characteristic blue stripe only observed in the cleaner lineage of gobies marks great contrast with the coral microhabitats compared to other stripe colors found in gobies, so allow them to be spotted easily. Blue stripes of Elacatinus play a role as signals for cooperation in addition to advertisement. Additionally, Elacatinus spp. However, cheating may result in punishment. This client behavior is similar to sanction strategy, where one partner restrains its biological investment.
This strategy has been proven effective in keeping interspecies mutualism stable, and such cheating behavior is not readily observed in Elacatinus. Therefore,they most likely cheat only when ectoparasites supply is depleted in clients.
Neon goby E. Generally, if the specimen has a blue stripe, it can be identified as E. Various species are offered as "gold neon gobies". Neon gobies are not difficult to keep, and accept a wide variety of water parameters. Specific gravity is not critical, so long as it remains steady. As with all marine aquarium fish, they are sensitive to even trace amounts of ammonia or nitrite in an aquarium.
Small amounts of nitrate are acceptable, but significant amounts over the long term can cause problems. Other parameters, such as alkalinity , only become a problem if they are extreme.